Guidelines for Authors

Annals of Clinical and Biomedical Research publishes the following article types:

  • Original research articles
  • Reviews
  • Case reports
  • Letters to the Editor
  • Short reports
  • States of the art
  • Technical notes


Manuscripts will be carefully scrutinized for evidence of plagiarism, duplication and data manipulation; in particular, images will be carefully examined for any indication of intentional improper modification.

Manuscript will be carefully scrutinized for evidence of plagiarism, duplication and data manipulation; in particular, images will be carefully examined for any indication of intentional improper modification.

Any suspected misconduct ends up with a quick rejection and is then reported to the US Office of Research Integrity.

Ensure that your work is written in correct English before submission.
Professional copyediting can help authors improve the presentation of their work and increase its chances of being taken on by a publisher. In case you feel that your manuscript would benefit from a professional a professional English language copyediting checking language grammar and style, you can find a reliable revision service at:


All manuscripts must contain the following sections:

  • Ethics approval and consent to participate
  • Consent for publication
  • Availability of data and material
  • Competing interests
  • Funding
  • Authors' contributions
  • Acknowledgements


The Corresponding Author (multiple corresponding authors are not allowed) must submit the manuscript online-only through our Manuscript Submission System.

Preparing your manuscript

The manuscript should be divided into: Title page; Abstract; Text; References; Tables; Figures; Tables/Figures legends
The Title page must contain the following information: Title of the paperfull name and surname of author(s); full name, town and country of the institution(s) where the work was done; complete address (phone and fax numbers, E-mail address) of the corresponding author (please note that multiple corresponding authors are not allowed); key words

Original Articles (3500 words max, abstract 350 words max, 50 references max, 3/5 tables and/or figures): Reports of basic and applied research in the areas of clinical medicine and basic medical sciences. Original Articles should be divided into an Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions and References. A maximum of 10 authors is permitted and additional authors should be listed in an ad hoc Appendix.

Reviews (5000 words max, abstract 250 words max, 40 to 100 references, 3/5 tables and/or figures): They should be introduced by a general summary of content in the form of an Abstract. Following a short Introduction, putting the study into context and defining the aim, reviews will concentrate on the most recent clinical updates in the field and summarize the state-of-the-art literature. A review should clearly describe the search strategy followed (key words, inclusion, exclusion criteria, search engines, ...). No particular format is required; headings should be used to designate the major divisions of the paper.

Case Reports (about 2000 words, abstract 150 words max, 20 references max, 3 tables and/or figures): Reports describing observations on clinical cases that can be educational, including adverse effects of drugs or outcomes of a specific treatment. They should be divided into: Abstract, Introduction (optional), Case report(s), Discussion, Conclusions and References.

Letters to the Editor (1000 words max, no abstract needed, 3 references): Letters should address specific scientific issues raised by papers published by the Annals of Clinical and Biomedical Research or deliver information/news regarding an issue related to the Journal scope. Authors of papers cited in the Letters will be given the opportunity to respond. Letters that are highly polemic will not be published. Letters are not peer reviewed and are published at the discretion of the Annals of Clinical and Biomedical Research editors. Conclusions and opinions expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect the policies of Annals of Clinical and Biomedical Research.

Short Reports (3000 words max, abstract 350 words max, 50 references max, 3/5 tables and/or figures): Short Reports should present research that extends previously published research or report promising data, as well as negative results. Short Reports can also contain original data on pivotal studies. Authors must clearly acknowledge any work upon which they are building, both published and unpublished. The abstract should briefly summarize the aim, findings or purpose of the article. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The main text should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.

States of the Art (5000 words max, abstract 250 words max, 50 references max, 3/5 tables and/or figures): States of the art should summarize the most significant information, ideas and knowledge from the literature on the topic and present this along with their own evidence-based point of view. It should be divided in Abstract, Introduction, Main text and Conclusions. The Introduction section should explain the background to the article, its aims, a summary of a search of the existing literature and the issue under discussion, while the main text should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings. The Conclusions should state clearly the main conclusions and include an explanation of their relevance or importance to the field.

Technical Notes (3000 words max, abstract 250 words max, 40 references max, 3 tables and/or figures): these should present an experimental or computational method, test or procedure. The method or test described may be new or may be an update/adaptation of an existing one. The method or test needs to have been tested, and must be available for testing by reviewers in a way that preserves their anonymity. The abstract should briefly summarize the aim, findings or purpose of the article. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The text should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.

References should be prepared strictly according to the Vancouver style); for details see the URL: Where available, URLs for the references should be provided directly within the Word document. References must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first cited in the text, and they must be identified in the text by arabic numerals in square brackets. 
References to personal communications and unpublished data should be incorporated in the text and not placed under the numbered References.

The legends of Tables and Figures should be informative and concise without duplicating information presented within the body of the text. Remarks such as "see comments in the text" must be avoided.

Figures: Symbols and abbreviations used in figures can be defined in the figure caption or note or within the figure itself. Please avoid the use of boldface or greater size for the characters. Please remember that in order to promote good management of the space available images must take up the least possible space without compromising clarity. The number of figures should be reasonable and justified: no more than 20% of the article. They must be numbered with Arabic numerals and placed at the end of the manuscript. Lettering of figures must be clearly labeled. Figures with different panels have to be grouped into a plate, and panels marked with letters. Micrographs contained in the same figure should be marked with letters. 
There is no additional cost for publishing color figures.
Figures should be designed using a well-known software package.

When requested by the Editors, Figures and graphs must be submitted as .tif or .jpg files, with the following digital resolution, preferably saved for MacIntosh:

  • Color (saved as CMYK): 300 dpi - maximum width 17 cm
  • Black and white/grays:  600 dpi - maximum width 17 cm

In case extracts (text/figures/tables) from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright holder(s) and credit the source(s) in the article, for example: 'Adapted from Oliveira et al., Pediatr Rep 2019;11:8166; with permission.' The editorial office of Annals of Clinical and Biomedical Research needs to receive a copy of the written permission before proceeding with publication. Please download here the 'License and Disclaimer' agreement.

Peer-review policy

All manuscripts submitted to our journal are critically assessed by external and/or in-house experts in accordance with the principles of peer review, which is fundamental to the scientific publication process and the dissemination of sound science. The first step of manuscript selection takes place entirely in-house and has two major objectives: i) to establish the article appropriateness for the readership of our journal; ii) to define the manuscript priority ranking relative to other manuscripts under consideration, since the number of papers that the journal receives is much greater than it can publish. If a manuscript does not receive a sufficiently high priority score to warrant publication, the editors will proceed to a quick rejection. The remaining articles are reviewed by at least two different external referees (second step or classical peer review). Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Uniform Requirements established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). 

Authorship and Contributorship

All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship according to the ICMJE criteria. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should only be based on substantial contributions to: i) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data, and to ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on iii) final approval of the version to be published; and iv) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work .  Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Authors should provide a brief description of their individual contributions. 
Those who do not meet all four criteria should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading. Authors can find detailed information on the Publisher's web site

Changes in Authorship
If authors request removal or addition of an author after manuscript submission or during the peer-review process or at article acceptance, the journal editors should receive a letter clearly explaining the reason for the change.  Authors are also requested to sign and send to the Editors a statement of agreement for the requested change from all listed authors and from the author to be removed or added.
No changes to the Authors or Corresponding Author can be made after publication of the article, either as an “Advance Online Article” or in the regular issue. Instead, a corrigendum may be considered by the journal editor.

Obligation to Register Clinical Trials 

The ICMJE believes that it is important to foster a comprehensive, publicly available database of clinical trials. The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, etc. Our journals require, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. The journal considers a trial for publication only if it has been registered before the enrollment of the first patient. The journal does not advocate one particular registry but requires authors to register their trial in a registry that meets several criteria. The registry must be accessible to the public at no charge. It must be open to all prospective registrants and managed by a non-profit organization. There must be a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and the registry should be electronically searchable. An acceptable registry must include a minimum of data elements ( For example,, sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine, meets these requirements.

Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. An Informed Consent statement is always required from patients involved in any experiments. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.  Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the World Medical Association (2016 revision). 
When reporting experiments on ecosystems involving non-native species, Authors are bound to ensure compliance with the institutional and national guide for the preservation of native biodiversity.